Church-Built by Churchfield Racing

Church's tips for 2020...


The Church Built Notebook: Click on the crossed wrench...
Starting with the Body...  (2/5/2019) A document file in PDF format is available.
Vaccum Bleeder... (1/10/2019)
Ballast from the past... (5/1/2020)
Remove a pilot bushing...  (3/2/2019)
Church's Endorsements...  (2/20/2020)
Roll Axis and Center...  (2/23/2020)
The Chassis Calculator...  (3/3/2020) - Pre-calculator your percentage change (PPT). Chassis Sheet download.
The Percent Calculator...  (3/11/2020) - Live calculator with a SAMPLE percentage.
Forgotten Myths Roll center - Gravity Height and Heat Cycles...
Street Stock Metric 101...   (4/1/2020) -2 Meg, 17 pages, 12,000 words, images and illustrations. (PDF file)
Some 9 inch tips... (6/15/2020)
Tire Management... (7/1/2020) - Tires, you can't leave the pits without them. (PDF file)
Calc   (8/20/20) - My spreadsheet application for racecar preparation.
Spring Calculator - Calculate your spring rates using basic math. (9/10/20)
Index that fuel pump
Do it right or you will destroy a good pump in just a few laps.
Other Calculators for Review
There is a lot of racecar information here. It all depends on your thought process.
Remove a pilot bearing  (3/2/19)

Ok here is a tip you might be interested in. I know, these tips are not really fabrication, but in the grand scheme of racing, anything you do to prepare a racecar, or upgrade, or repair, you will need to apply some
form of fabrication. In this case we fabricate a tool to remove a pilot bushing. This should also work with "bearings", but if the bearing is really torn up, this removal tip is not going to work for you. Our simple
tool saves us a trip to Walmart and about 25 bucks. For a once-in-a-while tool...yeah I can do that.

At the rear of your engine's crankshaft there should be a pilot shaft bushing inserted to maintain proper driveline to engine relationship. The pilot bushing is present so the transmission input shaft maintains proper
alignment with the crank. The bushing must be inserted properly. That is, there is a stop on the inside of the crank that is machined to a proper depth. The bushing should be inserted to this stop (or step).
f I may let me explain why. The rear main bearing that supports the crankshaft is known as the "thrust bearing". This bearing actually is designed to move a short (few thousands) distance to properly load the crankshaft under engine stress. These bearings are designed to take axial loads when forces are applied. Such forces include a small movement "back and forth" of your ctankshaft during rev up and down. Hydraulic forces that we cannot control will "thrust" the crank forward and backward under normal operation. In a drag car for example, the amazing thrust placed on the crankshaft during "go green", is beyond your imagination. Granted there are several ways to un-load these forces, but your engine oil system is the first element involved. The same hydraulic pressure that causes your crankshaft to "float" above these bearings, is required in order to protect the "thrust bearing" al the rear of your engine block.

Now that we are beyond "thrust bearings 101", we can continue. For those with big dollars, you can apply the Perkins system to your race engine. This adapter protects the crank in a way that allows the
 pilot shaft to slide in and out as the crank moves rearward under acceleration. For the rest of us in Street Stock, we generally choose a "brass bushing" or a "roller bearing" type alignment, but too
 many of us do not insert the bearing to proper depth.  This is where we make our mistake...not allowing the crank to move rearward without binding to the pilot shaft, we are damaging the "pilot bearing,
 pilot shaft and thrust bearing"...which leads to engine repairs, and transmission repairs. I won't mention possible clutch damage. Please understand, you guys running automatics, this is not an issue, but
 you must understand how important the crankshaft thrust bearing is, no matter what driveline you apply power too!!
So, the best way to check your installation...pull back your bell housing from the engine. Lay a ruler across the face of the bell housing and check the depth of the pilot shaft. That is, measure from the ruler edge to the face of the pilot shaft. Now measure the distance the crankshaft protrudes beyond the "bell" face of the block. You now have two numbers, subtract. Now measure the depth your pilot bearing is inserted into the block. Now measure the length of the pilot shaft from face to clutch pilot gear. Doing the math as shown here, you should have a deficite as defined by your crankshaft supplier. That deficite is the amount your crankshaft will move rearward without binding hard on the pilot clutch gear. You should never allow the pilot to "push hard" on the pilot gear...for any reason, this is bad for your crankshaft. Remember...this movement is thousands of an inch, maybe .003 at maximum, but if the crank is not allowed to move, the rear main bearing will not live very long.
  The tool we fabricated is simple to make on your lathe. Take a 3/4 bar stock of solid mild steel and turn down the bar to the diameter of your pilot shaft, less a few thousands to
 allow the tool to slide in and out of the bushing like a piston. Now take any lubricating grease, not your expensive stuff, and fill the cavity of your crankshaft with grease. Go ahead
 fill the entire cavity behind the bearing. Now push the tool into the pilot bearing and pump like a piston. You may have to add some grease while the bearing is moving out, until
 the bearing is removable by hand.
 You simply created a hand pump. Very much like the "grease sleeve" tool that you can buy on eBAY that allows you to use your grease gun like a pump. These tools work, but
 they are a ball-buster to use. You have to hold the grease gun, push the handle on the gun and keep the tool in place hoping it does not pop out before it pushes the bushing
 out far enough to grab with a screw driver...very awkward. Hydraulic pistons work but they must fit properly.
 If you want one of these tools made for us. Give us the dimension of your pilot shaft and Gary will turn one on our lathe. The material and labor is about 25.00
 to do this for you. Takes about 20 minutes and saves you hundreds of dollars in aggrevation.
 Anyway, that is how you remove your polit bearing. BTW: Did I mention, you should drop your pan and check the "thrust bearing" in your engine, if you see any wear on that
 brass bushing. The pilot shaft will not show much wear, but the brass bushing will tell the tale. Don't destroy a good engine over a 15.00 part!!!
Update: 4/1/2020. I have seen where some people have used sandwich bread. One article used "silly putty". That is actually a very good choice. None the less...this is all
about simple hydraulics.


Bleed the Hydraulic Systems: (3/12/19)
There is a very nice tool that you can buy to help you "bleed" your racecar brakes and that pesky clutch system. The clutch is probably the least desirable hydraulic system on your racecar.
First, it sits high in the car, almost level with or just slightly below your master cylinder. While some racers still use the "slave" to manage a mechanical clutch, the proper way is to use a hydrauluc system such as  RAM, Tilton or Quater Master. The ultimate system is a Bert transmission and you eliminate clutch issues, but we are not all privledged to use specialty transmissions in our racecar, so we must apply a single or triple disk clutch using a throw-out bearing. These systems are easy to install and most all after market bell housings accept the hardware. The triple disk clutch system eliminates the use of a heavy "flywheel", they are more reliable and less likely damaged from track debris. The problem is bleeding these units. They should be bench bleed prior to installation, but if you have a blown line and you loose your hyrdaulics, you must repair and re-bleed the system. Use a "vacuum bleeder" to do the job. It will be far easier at the track than attempting to bleed the system by hand.
There are a lot of these units on the market, but for 20 bucks, the Harbor Freight "Pittsburgh" (60770) tool works fine. You do not have to spend a lot of money on one of these tools. To use...plumb the tool as shown in the illustration. The "cup" should always be in-between the "hand pump" and the system you are bleeding. Attach the proper tubing "adapter" to the "bleeder" (brake or clutch), now "top-off" the master cylinder resevoir. Open the bleeder and pump the tool handle, the vaccum gauge will inform you of system charge and the tubing should deliver hydraulic fluid from the "clutch (or brake) system" to the clear plastic "cup".
Note: While these tools are called "vaccum bleeders", essentially they are a HAND-PUMP that pulls fluid from the resevoir through the entire system. This works far better than conventional hyrdaulic bleeding. If you have a "bias" brake adjustment, you cannot bleed front-rear brakes properly, they are separate circuits, but the bias bar functions with both master cylinders. Keep an eye on the resevoir and make sure you maintain at least 1/2 the resevoir during the operation. When you are satisfied, close the bleeder and "top-off" fluid again. One more tip...if you are using this system to do brakes, first you should close the calipar piston completely. This clears the "bubble void" that remains between the bleeder and the piston.


Body Hanging Tips: (2/22/19)
There was a very good article written by Jeff Huneycutt and published on Circle Track website back in April 2015. Jeff is well known for his highly opinionated articles that guide racers in the proper
direction. After reading the article I began to hang our 2019 Pro Stock body. I decided not to write an entire article, but instead add my opinions, tips, ideas and basic simplestic-expertise to the
Hanging an aluminim body -- create a template  -- transfer to aluminum sheet -- bend, fold and bead roll -- mount to chassis -- tab "A" meets tab "B", now rivet them together  -- repeat and repeat!!

I have posted the article here on the website. Simply click here and the .PDF Acrobat file will download for you. You may need the latest Acrobat Reader. The article is not complete, and neither is the
car at this point, but the original article by Mr. Huneycutt is. Afterall that is what you came for...
Endorsements: (2/2/2020)
Endorsements are important, especially if they support your initiative. Your sponsor for example...
One of our sponsors is Matt Machine. The business is a growing success story of a small three man machine shop
turned into a 38 man small business. No there are no racecart parts to be had there and you can't really use much that these people manufacture; but they are part of your life. Gary, runs the Wire EDM
department. The parts he machines, for example, can be found on helicopters, MRI machines and CAT scan equipment.
Arrow Automotive and Al Sivick is another sponsor we rely on. Arrow has supplied us with a lot of racecar parts and while he is a local 'grocery getter' service center, he keeps our equipment running
and inspected so we can get the racecar to the track. Al is a retired racer, his eMod raced weekends at Motordrome and Jennerstown.
Neighbors we endorse:
We also endorse Gary Henry Race engines, Pricise Racing Supply. The decals and graphics on the car are obvious endorsements of some kind, at some level. But there are several business and local
operators who we endorse off the car as well...
Chris Schneider of SnS (SS) Chassis would be one such local builder, the S&S we are speaking of is located in Lower Burrell, not Schiller Park. SnS is Chris Schneider and his cars can be found throughout
the area racing at local dirt tracks. Chris is a veteran racer with several championships. He is a good fabricator and certainly will offer assistance to any local racer. (724) 212-7946
Products we endorse:
There are many products we endorse. From time to time we find items that racers use in their shops everyday. These products cab be expensive and inventories for repair materials and maintenance equipment
can strain a small budget. I have a list of items I recommend and the source for these items as well.
Harbor Freight is the small shop savior. As much as I don't recommend their items, I do have a few that I would endorse and use every day. For example they sell a $9.95 cut-off grinder that uses 4 1/2 wheels.
I mean $9.95?? But trust me, these things are worth having. They work just fine and will give you a year or so of service before you trash the remains. But at that price you can afford to have three of them. Hell
at that price you can't afford not too!! They do require a 4 1/2 inch cut off wheel.
That brings me to Bauer. The Bauer 4 1/2 inch cutoff wheels come in a 10 pack for 10.00...these wheels outlast Sait or DeWalt. I have compared them with 3M and they are as good if not better for Aluminum,
and Stainless. I can't imagine using anything else in a small to medium workshop. The Bauer name is a winner and you can purchase all their tools at Harbor Freight.

More to come...

The chassis ROLL: This article applies to double wishbone suspensions (upper and lower control arms).
Everyone likes a good donut, muffin or a breakfast roll with their coffee. A good donut has a roll center. so why not poor another 'Cup of Joe' and let me dish out the truth about ROLL centers and axis points,
called instant centers, and how they function around a Street Stock racecar.

  July 1st update: Editor's note. After some experiments I have found that ROLL CENTER AXIS POINTS (shown in the illustration below as RED and BLUE circles)
 are more important than first calculated.

 My first thought was to make sure that these "circles" (axis mements) appear on average, outside the wheel on the right. I payed no attention to the left side. That turns out to be wrong.
 I now understand the LEFT axis should land on the RF tire patch and the RIGHT axis should land on the LF tire patch. This is not always possible on turn entry, but setting your initial
 roll center correctly is important because the AXIS MOMENTS must not land too far outside the RIGHT wheel; the result will be a "horizontal" push on the tire that may force the car to slide,
 losing side bite. Side bite is a precious commodity and it is controlled by weight transfer. Your ROLL CENTER controls this weight transfer. Your springs, and shocks can't perform if the weight is
 transferred out and over the wheel. This happens when the ROLL CENTER is too HIGH on the RIGHT. The LEFT side loses all bite and the car drifts sideways on the surface.
 Imagine adding 100 pounds of ballast two feet above the roll cage, eventually you will throw that weight too far beyond your roll axis; the car ends up on it's roof.

What I have noticed over the last couple of years, everyone is trying their best to make a Street Stock function like a late model. Lots of left side carry in the front and hike up on bars in the rear. I don't
know if that is the fastest way around the track, but the crowd certainly loves it and the newbees to the sport, they are impressed, but the winner is generally not the radical racecar.
Roll Center can be difficult to imagine, so a lot of racers put it on the back burner. Ask them, go ahead, ask them where is your "roll center" and if they know, they will ask you, where, front or rear, static ride height or while the car is entering or exiting a turn. They will not have an exact answer for you...these are trade secrets, but they may tell you where it is at static height,
as it sits in the pits. Now understand, Roll Center is the mathmatical point where an imaginary circle generates rotation 'Left over Right' (looking at the car). Count on this...your front end geometry
is based upon circles. Your upper and lower control arms roll through a circle as does the entire car. This is why racecars "roll-over' when the racetrack surface has a lot of bite. Roll in hard, you are on your roof!

There are a set of center lines that run through your car. These are located at the spindles LEFT to RIGHT, and through the REAR AXLES L-R. There is a DRIVE-LINE center that runs through the crankshaft to the
pinion. These lines, any of them, can be offset or dead center. The intersecting points can be 90 degrees + and - a degree or two. They can be +/- 90 along an offset as well, but where these lines meet side to
side and front to back, they are very important. You must know these intersecting points in order to understand what happens when roll center and instant MOMENT points are applied.
Keep in mind that shocks and springs are useless without roll so you must understand your roll centers before you can utilize the performance tricks of springs and ahocks

Your ROLL CENTER is located where lines drawn through the upper control, from the spindle mount (ball joint) through the arm pivot points on the chassis and meet a line through the lower ball joint (spindle mount)
through the lower arm pivot points. These two lines meet to create the ROLL AXIS (shown in red and blue). Two additional lines. one each L-R that starts where the center of the wheel makes contact with ground
and continues to each relative ROLL AXIS point. Where these two lines intersect, that is your ROLL CENTER (black dot). You are searching for a HIGH ROLL CENTER when the racetrack is heavy with bite, you LOWER
your ROLL CENTER when the track becomes dry slick. As the ROLL CENTER comes closer to GRAVITY CENTER, the "chassis leverage" is LESS. Placing the ROLL CENTER on the GRAVITY CENTER, the "chassis leverage" is null, almost void. Remember GRAVITY CENTER (CG) is a fixed point that does not move.

Your chassis rolls around this center; like the "hole in a phonograph record". Drill a hole off-center place the tone arm on the record, the arm moves left to right as the record turns...
this is exactly what you are doing with roll centers on a racecar. If the hole is too far from the center, the tone arm will slide off the surface. The needle is the contact patch,
you will need additional weight on the tone arm (on the corner) to hold it in the groove...this is the same as losing side bite...get the point??
The illustration shows you where these lines intersect, but they are not static, so finding the exact location is where most racers become frustrated.
There is an easy way to do this. But you will have to MAP your suspension. You are not going to get much accuracy at this point even
if you are an expert at mapping your suspensions system, but there is an easier way. There is a softare program that will save you a lot of time.
Performance Trends Roll Center Calculator offers you a solution. This application runs on Windows computers and covers most suspension types
including double wishbone with coil-overs or separated shocks and springs. The software does this for front and rear axles.
You should know, ROLL CENTERS are not just at the front of your racecar.
Mapping can take some time laying under the car at ride height and dropping a plum line to the floor. However you can place a level across the top of your suspension, say across the chassis. Now measure to the floor. Measure the high points of your front end from this level and subtract the distance to the floor. Making these measurements is critical. The lower control arm is the simple one. The upper, because there are a lot of items in the way. This requires  a little help, a small, ruler/level and a 24 inch straight edge. The upper ball-joint should be easy to measure. The arm pivots on the chassis, that will take a little skill. You are measureing for the HEIGHT off ground for all six points L-R (3 for each arm). The entries you make on paper will be transferred to the software; from there you only have to adjust the X-Y-Z numbers and tour ROLL CENTER will be calculated again. So you basically MAP your suspension(s) front and rear one time. When you see on screen what you like, transfer those measurements back to the car using shims or adjusting the arms as needed.

In closing...You may not know Jack Schit, but you should know Joe, and he tells it like it really donut holes here!!
Click on the image below to get the full story about Roll Centers and Instant Centers.

Reference: Search Internet for...
Roll Center, Roll Axis and Center of Gravity.
Joe's Racing Products - Performance Trends
XYZ Input Chart - Three Axis FAQ sheet

Ballast from the past...

I bet you don't have bars located in your Street Stock for this exercise...
In the early 90's (20th century) before a lot of you were born...the concept of racing was "keep the car flat" and race the track. That is not the concept today, Most guys like to
drive hard around the outside, but that is not always the fastest way around. If everyone is racing "nose to tail" around the top, the cushion will eventually break down. Consider
finding a better way...
Most of you don't have bars located specifically for ballast. In the illustration above the "yellow" highlight is where you place your
heaviest ballast. You want to balance the car and then remove/add ballast for bite. Never add ballast at the corners for the sake of meeting weight.
Add your weight in the middle for your rules, balance the car and than add weight where you need bite. If you need 40 pounds on the LR corner;
add 20 pounds over the LR, and remove 20 pounds from the middle (yellow zone). This is like adding 40 over the LR. Your corners will change,
but your mass should remain the same.

Ballast basics: Place the heaviest weight as close to "center of gravity" as possible. In the illustration above "area yellow".
The CoG is not physically located along the chassis center-line. It is an average point located between two points.
The longitude CoG is a formula WB x FP [example (108)(.53.4)= LON]. The latitude CoG is WT x LSP [example (66)(.52.2)= LAT].
Key: WB = wheelbase, FP = front percent, WT = wheel track, LSP = left side percent, RSP = right side percent.
LON = 58.32, LAT = 34.32 calculate for hypotenuse [CW], the result would be 67.7. We must disect [C] with a line at 90 degrees.

There are basics that must be understood, before you start set you car with tires and springs you plan to run on your racecar.
Level out the car on your floor or pad and prepare to scale the car.
Remove the driver, remove most all your fuel, remove all "ballast from past" setups. Your chassis should be void of any ballast.
The car should be sitting ready to race, less driver and any ballast-weight. Make sure your tire pressures are set properly.
If you already know your normal ride height, make sure you have it set now adding the height of your scales.
Let us begin:
As the car sits, nude to the world, take a snapshot of your scales. Make a much does your driver weigh??
The ultimate percentages for a nude, 3000 pound stock car would be FP = 50, RP = 50, RSP = 50, LSP = 50. That would give you 50% wedge.
Those numbers are crazy. But that is a balanced racecar. However we don't want that, we want some LSP, say 51.3%. This is why
we added our doodads left of center when we built the car; the battery, seat and driver, steering box and extra bars for ballast.
If we remove 100 pounds from RF and 100 pounds from LR, the percents remain the same, but the wedge drops to 54%.
The car remains balanced. Now if we take 50 pounds from the RR what happens? Yes the wedge goes up but the front increases as well.
Look at your base "nude-mass-total". Subtract that from your weight-rule. Example 3000 pounds EOR minus your "nude mass" (2675) = 325 pounds.
Place your heaviest ballast as close to COG as possible. As you add ballast the LON and LAT will move because your racecar is dynamic not static weight.
Let us say you add 100 pounds at CoG (25 pounds at each corner). Your percentages should not change. If it did, adjust the location away from the highest corner.
Move the CoG ballast L-R or F-R in order to maintain ballance on four corners. This ballast can be raised when needed to access more "roll-axis" if needed.
Now consider your driver and place him in the car. Say 185 pounds on the left (92.5 pounds LR-LF). The LS weight should increase percentage.
Your cross weight should be 53% or higher and 53% should be on the left side. Not bad at all. But you are not at weight. Now you need to add more weight.
But before you do, you must find CGH or center-gravity-height. I have a link here for you to follow, but I can save you some time, your CGH for a metric stock
car averaging 3000 pounds will be close to 22 inches, with rear of car lifted 8 inches from ground. Here is the link:
You are still 115 pounds shy, so carefully add weight increasing it to the rear. Again keep this ballast as close to CoG as possible while stacking along the line of CGH.
This is the fundamental moment arm where ballast (mass) in a physical third dimension is placed in motion by centrifugal forces. If this mass is placed too far from the CoG
the dynamics are slowed and the reaction is sluggish, requiring far greater forces to create action, thus the reactions are just as sluggish. If this mass is placed too high
above the CGH, the centrufugal forces are dramatically increased and all actions become uncontrollable, lifting wheels off the ground and forcing weight over the nose.

Remember I said the CoG will move, it is dynamic. You can adjust dynamic CoG movement with spring weight, and tire pressure, use your weight jacks and reset the ride height.
Your shocks and springs control the four corner dymanics. If the car is balanced these adjustments, even subtle ones can improve handling in almost biblical proportion.
My suggested percentage balance, before you take a single lap: FRONT = 50%, REAR = 50%, LEFT SIDE 53%, RIGHT SIDE 47% with a CROSS WEDGE of 53%.
Go take some laps and make your adjustments. If all fails come back to this setup and start get it right, you will be fast!!
I gaurantee it.

Simple ballast adjustments:
The basic of ballast is to meet your track rule at the EOR (end of race). This is your primary objective. So start by placing as much of the needed weight as close to CoG
as possible (yellow zone). Now look at your corner weights on the scale. If all is correct you should be close to balance. Adjust your weight jacks as required to meet a good
balance point. Keep your ride height consistent around the car. You will have a hard time maintaining 50% all around, but "what the hell" try it and see what you get.
I did pretty good on my first shot, I managed 50% front and rear, but lost my "cross" percentage. That I can get back very easily. You should keep in mind "negative wedge"
is a pavement thing, you are running on dirt, you  are looking for "side bite" and "forward bite". That comes with RIGHT SIDE percentage and REAR percentage.
If you want more cross, remove weight off the Left Front or add to the LEFT REAR. You want less cross, remove weight off the Left Rear or add to the Left Front.
The tricks are endless...but you must maintain the MASS while doing this exercise. In other words "do not ever add weight for the sake of percentage"!! Maintain your basic
chassis weight with driver. Add weight in order to tune the car "properly". Properly means you tune so the car can be run anywhere on the track. If you need 50 pounds on
 a specific corner in order to run faster on the bottom, remove 25 pounds from CoG and add that where it is needed...the result will be the same.
Example: Need more cross - add 50 to the LR and 50 to the RR, now remove 100 off the LF. You have more  CROSS and more REAR percentage.
You have increased RIGHT SIDE BITE,
the chassis MASS remains the same. Now finish the job by increasing the RIGHT SIDE percentage without increasing mass.

Something must go on a diet...
In the grand scheme of things setting up your racecar is a very tedious task. Let me state that differently, setting up your racecar to run anywhere on the track, now
that is a tedious task. It is not hard to make a racecar rotate. Place a lot of ballast behind the fuel cell and stand on the gas. Any kid with a third grade education can
figure that one out. The problem is, that kind of setup, the racecar runs one line, one groove and without a cushion the driver will be "cheek-pinching" the entire event.
Anytime I see some guy with big hunks of ballast hanging off the rear of the car, I see 2 or 3 inches of stagger. I know exactly where he is going to run. My driver will take
full advantage of that. I also notice the racecar that tends to sit, with the driver side at more than 55% left side weight. Take a good look at the racecar with a lot of
right side lean while sitting static. What does this tell you?? Basically that the driver is a heavyweight. But if not, you can expect the car will be sliding sideways, not
rotating as expected with little counter steer as well. This car will bounce into the apex and there is no way to be sure the car is under control.
So where is the best balance?? Most dirt racecars have a relatively high cross weight, close to 53%, and that will support OVERSTEER. You want OVERSTEER, but you
want to control it. If you have these numbers F-48%-R-52% and X-53%, you have a very raceable car. But in order to get these numbers with a "leaner" left
side, percentage that can be a real problem. The LH percent should not be so high that you consume all of your "roll axis" energy moving the weight left to right. Consider
the "two by four"...a short piece will weigh the same laid either side on the scale, but laid on the short side, the roll-axis is augumented in your favor. I mean, ballast
adjustments are less exagerated and simple aletrations on corners can be made without adding weight. The "upright theroy" (ballast at CGH) offers preeminent weight control.
Think of it this way. If you want to run up on the top you don't need as much RIGHT SIDE bite to complete the apex. But the same car entering at the same velocity into
a bottom groove, you will need more RIGHT SIDE bite. At 55% left side you must apply more left to right "roll axis", and it must be applied sooner and harder at turn entry.
That can't happen because the heavier your LEFT SIDE weight is, the more "sluggish" it becomes to roll the weight, especially if you have some extreme step in the car.
Take a moment and look at SuperCalc...
Tip: Set the car to 50% LEFT before placing the driver in the car. Do this with 48% on the front. Now add the driver, read the scales. Now add right side weight to the
right of your CoG. As you increase right percantage you will increase cross as well. Try to keep your L-R percent close to 2% difference. It can be done.


Nine Inch Tips...
The pinion bearings. When changing the pinion bearings, or adding a new set of gears to your rearend, keep in mind the pattern is easiest to complete if the pinion is
properly set up first. In racing you should always be sure the bearings are not worn this eliminates heat and heat is a problem in racing rears. The biggest issue is that
spacer that sits in between the front and rear pinion bearings. In the stock setup this was a "crush spacer". When heat is generated in the rear-end the "crush spacer"
collapses and allows for bearing growth. This generates a problem because this can lead to pinion failure if the washer collapses too far.
The most common fix is the solid pinion spacer and shims that allow you to preload the bearings for proper fit. This was a solid spacer, but the problem was obvious.
The spacer is sloppy on the pinion and the shims can easily be crushed or torn apart if the bearings over-grow due to excessive heat. These spacers will fail. QP Performance
sells a unique piniion spacver kit for 15 bucks that is a 2 piece design that allows the shims to be installed between the spacer sections. One end of the spacer is tapered to seat
the rear bearing cone, while the other is flat to ride the rear of the front bearing. Set this up by pressing on the front bearing while leaving .005 end play. Use a dial indicator at
the rear of the pinioon and check run-out. Now install the yoke. Using your impact drive the yoke on. Now check preload by testing the amount of "inch-pounds" it requires to turn
the pinion with seal in place. This is done before placing in the housing. You should read 7 to 10 inch pounds to turn the pinion. I tested this theroy by placing the pinion in the freezer
over night, the inch-pound test delivered 3 to 5 inch-pounds to turn the pinion. This preload is important if you want the rear end to last a season or two.
Inserting the pinion is a simple task and you should have a decent pattern out of the box. If not, you can adjust the SPACER SHIMS or use pinion "position" shims to move the pinion forward.
Check your pattern to be sure it is not too tight (see illustration). As a rule, I adjust the carrier locks for about 10 thousand back-lash.
I might suggest placing your back-side on a diet. If you are running modified stock or sportsman stock, you might want to replace that Ford ring gear carrier with a lightweight full spool.
QP Performance sells a nice unit that does not cost an arm and a leg. These are way easier to setup and you will notice a big loss of "axle-turning-fat" immediately. On a side note...
You guys in this class...stop using those junk-steel Chinese mini-spools (period)

The normal pattern is what you look for. Anything else will end up as a disaster.
(Illustration credit: unknown)

SuperCalc - My spreadhset for street-stock racecar on clay tracks. (Church-Rule: 48/52/54)
Back in the days of CPM operating system there was a spreadsheet known as SuperCalc. The spreadsheet application of today is Microsoft Excel, but in memory
of my favorite I have borrowed the name for just a few moments. I hold no claim to Supercalc, but this spreadsheet and the web pages that are referred to will
come in handy at your race shop.
You can open the spreadsheet here: MyCalculator (click to download)

You will need a spreadsheet application that can open .XLS files.
After you open the sheet, you can enter your scale data and follow along here...
You enter your data overtop mine. My car is the default weight settings for my 3200 pound Street Stock.
Use the BLUE cells and enter scale data. Next enter the desired WEDGE, target percentage you wish to reach.

The calculator will advise you of negative and positive corners and give you the best result for RF/LR corner weight.
In most cases you will only be rerquired to add a few turns into the LR corner. You will remove turns if the WEDGE is to high.
The Ride Height portion is a database. WHen you scale, check your ride heights and enter the data here. When you save the sheet
for later use, those ride heights will be posted for your calculations. You can add notes here as well. Use this as a simple weekly Database.
The Center of Gravity Height calculator is a must.

Most street stock racers have no clue where the CGH is at let alone the Center of Gravity. This calculator not only displays the
CGH, it will also calculate your Ballast Moment Point (BMP) The BMP can be very useful when raising ballast in your car.
Your Center of Gravity is simply the front/rear weight percentage subtracted from the wheel base. In other terms, a 50% front weight
would have your CoG located one half the distance along the wheelbase from front or rear. If you have 52% on the front, you have 48% on the rear.
The CoG will be located further from the rear axle than the front. Example: 108 X .52 or 56.16 inches measured from the rear to front.
Now the spread sheet, when calculated will offer you a location above your floor where the ballast in your car begins to work. This calculation is at CoG only.
So this is where you place your heaviest ballast block. Adding smaller amounts to the right of the CoG will increase the BMP roll axis, to the left will decrease roll.
What must be understood...positive wedge is OVERSTEER, you must counter-steer to keep the ballast under control. Proper control of the ballast allows the
mass to force more load weight (bite) onto the tire patch.  Turning the car, you must use as much tire as possible without over rolling the mass onto the side wall.
Note: If the tire rolls beyond your groove pattern, you can groove a tire like Rembrandt all day long in the shop, it will be worthless on the track.
There are no perfect spreadsheets, no absolute websites for dirt racing, what must be understood is balance. You cannot win on dirt if the car is less than 50% cross.
Oversteer is loose, and loose is fast (period)
To finalize...CGH is that point where added ballast can roll the car onto its side. Like the mast on a sail boat, without the keel, the mast weight alone will tip the hull over.
The BMP is where you would attach the mainsail boom. Enter a set of Go Kart numbers 50 inch WB, 5.5 inch ride height and raise the rear to 15 inches with 50 pounds at L/R front corners.
There is no way a Go Kart should ever roll over
. The Go Kart CGH is a negative number!!
I hope this helps. You must understand balance and counter-balance. Mounting a set of new tires everyweek in order to win 300 bucks and a trophy, this ain't grass-roots. If  you can afford to scrub away new tires, have at it.
But if you want 3 or 4 nights out of that investment, may I suggest you learn racecar balance, proper amounts of oversteer and counter-steer.
Note: You can apply the same train of thought by using the CGH calculator along the left side of your chassis. Take the average wheel track front to back and raise the left side of the car by five inches (your side roll factor). Read the RIGHT SIDE scales. Do you see anything that might change your mind about CGH?? Wait, before you lower that jack, watch the scales and crank 1 full turn into your RIGHT REAR SPRING...

I have added a  Corner Balance Calculator available here. This can be used on your phone as well.
This calculator requires your scale numbers and allows you to adjust mathamatics for percentage cross weight (balanced car).
This calculator displays approximate "side bite" based upon your cross-weight percentage.
The ON-LINE version uses my scale data less my driver and fuel. You can change these inputs and recalculate for your corners.
To clear the form, simply "refresh" the page (CTRL+R).
73's Robbie K9OJ from Terry W3GAS

The identical theroy can be applied front to back, but because the wheel base is so long the CGH would be very high above the chassis.
Balancing chassis "dive" is done with springs, shocks and tire pressure. What must be presented in this argument is over implementing these actions
can lead to a severe front end push simply because the engine is the heaviest mass in the car. Adjust your racecar to achieve the maximum
right side bite and forward bite. Doing so the RIGHT REAR wheel does the heavy work. Tire temperatures should be monitored after every event.
Note: The wider the chassis at the points of MASS the higher the CGH must be, for the greatest balance, some level of compromise must be met.
The Forgotten Myths of Racing:
The most abused information "never thought about" by dirt stock-car racers are...The Roll Axis Center, the Center of Gravity Height and Tire Heat Cycles.
Roll Axis explained in simple terms here and all you need is a ruler and a plum-bob. You should never head-off to the track without this information.
To determine your Roll AXis Center, use two sheets of standard letter size graph paper, rotate them landscape and lay them flat, side by side. Now
on the right side sheet, enter these graph marks.
The height from shop floor to upper ball joint. Define a line for the floor and count up the number of blocks
required for this measurement. Now find the height from the floor to the
front pivot point of your upper control arm. Mark this block. Draw a line between the
two marks. Now do the same for the
lower ball joint and the lower control arm front pivot point on the frame. Draw a line between these two marks. Do the
same for the left side sheet. You should have four marks and two lines on each side. Extend these lines across the paper until they dissect each other at the
"instant center". Do this for both sides. Now locate your "tire contact patch" on the floor and measure that distance from the
king pin incline which passes
through the upper and lower ball joints. Mark these on your graph. Now draw a line from the contact patch through the "instant center". Do this for both sides.
Where these lines dissect, this is your "roll axis center". For a dirt racecar, you want this point to be left of center as you face the car. The higher above
ground the more the chassis will roll into the turn. To change the ROLL CENTER you adjust the upper control arm pivot points (up or down). You can also
change the ROLL CENTER by changing wheel offset (see illustration below).

The ROLL CENTER graph allows you to imagine a theoretical point around which the chassis rolls. For more information.
FYI: The rear end of the car also has a ROLL CENTER it is located just below the third member. In a Street Stock configuration, there is limited adjustment.

Center of Gravity Height is another myth. This one requires you to be on your scales and prepared to raise the rear of the vehicle.

Tire Heat Cycles are often forgotten entirely. Especially for those of us who are limited by feeble budget to purchase new tires every week. For the "fat
wallet" racers, tires are a commodity. For many of us tires are an expense we must adjust for if we want to be competitive. We are often forced into buying
used tires in order to compete every week.
One thing we can do to prolong the life of a race tire is to start with a "first time" heat cycle. This allows the rubber compound to form more consistent.
In a race shop we take a basic "block" tire and groove it for the "corner application". Once this is done some racers wrap the tires in a wrap, while others
allow them to sun bathe for a few hours and then slow cool them down. This is the "easy cycle". This means we bring the tire up in temperature and let
them cool without agressive race wear and tear applied.
That is really all you are doing to the tire and it can be done in a "home brew" oven. You will need a wooden box that can hold your tire in place. The tire
should be allowed to rotate slowly in a circle. There will be an opening in the box that allows you to place two sun-lamps facing the tread of the tire and
located about 5 inches from the tire tread. Now allow the tire to heat up to temperature slowly. Through a small opening on the opposiong side from the
lamps, use your infrared thermometer and check the tire until it reaches about 135-140 degrees at the surface. Turn off the lamps and allow the tire to cool
naturally. This cycle process does improve tire life and the project to build a "first cycle box" will cost you a lot less than a single tire.
Keep in mind...for every 10 degrees of tire temperature, the tire increases 1 PSI.
Off site calculators:
Spring rate calculator: You will need the corner weight, the unsprung weight (front and rear) and your lower control arm dimensions.
Let me help. If you click the link above (in red) you will open a page at
I have attempted to duplicate their formulas but I have had some errors that I cannot seem to track down. Perhaps that is bacause I am applying the math
to Street Stock and Pure Stock with separate coil and shock GM front suspension. Click the link and take a look at the page:
Step One Sprung Weight. That will be your scaled weight as read from your scales. Let us use 750 pounds on the right front. In Step One we must
also enter the un-sprung weight. For a Street Stock with a GM clip that would be close to 95 pounds, less for 8 inch wheels; Sprung Weight would be 655 pounds.
Now we calculate the Motion Ratio. Step Two can be tough to calculate for a stock car because this calculator is using "coil-over" technology for this formula.
Dimension A is the lower control arm measured from frame pivot (mounting bolt) to the base of the shock mount. Dimension B is measured from the pivot
to the center of the lower ball joint. This does not offer us a real motion ratio because many of us use offset wheels and that effects the Motion Ratio
dramatically. Another factor is the spring location. For a stock GM lower control arm, the spring is located about 8.325 inches from the frame pivot.
In most cases input result will be .3XX to .4XX Motion Ratio. If you measure from frame pivot to the center of tire (perhaps 21 - 23 inches)
the ratio becomes lower.
The Coil Spring Angle is Step Three. For a GM clip Street or Pure Stock this angle is 80 degrees. The GM metric design is perfect for racing applications
in as much as the spring angle is less than 90 degrees. The weight applied during cornering pushes down and slightly away which improves applied angle
pressure to the tires...this increases side bite.
The Shock Stroke or Step Four. This entry is determined by your track or sanction rules for your class. If your shocks must be in stock location you can only
enter an 8 inch setting. This is because the shock location for a GM clip is in between the upper and lower control arms. You are limited in your shock travel.
If you are allowed to use adjustable weight jack screws (non-pocket spacers) you must mount your shock forward of the spring. This allows you to use long
stroke shocks. But even so, the spring will be limited to 10 inches. In this case you can use a 4 to 5 inch stroke. Most front springs have a bind factor. You can
determine that factor by measuring the coil diameter and multiplying it by the number of coils (0.875 wire diameter times 5 active coils = a 4.375 spring travel).
I suggest you enter a 4.1 stroke if your shocks are 9 inch. This allows your shock to travel a proper ratio to your spring's active travel.
Step Five is the result of the calculator. The Racing spring requirement is a good starting point, but you must determine your needs for track conditions, banking,
chassis design, roll axis, tire size and driving skill. May I suggest you review this link:

Corner Balance Calculator: You will need a snap shot of your scale results (corner weights).
Fuel Pump Indexing:
This is no big deal if you have your engine man on site. He will know what to do, but lets take a quick look inside. Just for the record you might learn something.
Most Street Stock and Sportsman racers are running a GM Metric chassis. Most are running some form of small block Chevrolet power plant. It could be a "crate"
motor or an "open" motor, but in most all cases it is not located in OEM stock location unless the rules are very strict. Most rules allow a setback and the forward
left hand spark plug location dictates the setback. Also, for you novice racers, lowering the engine is one trick that offers better control of your roll center. Setting
the engine down and back will render a far more nimble racecar and increase front suspension handling dramatically.
Doing this demands modification to your engine cross member. You will have to relocate engine mounts, but this is a racecar and you won't be using stock rubber
engine mounts, so don't panic. You will have to cut out a reasonable portion of your cross-member on the right front side in order to allow clearance for your fuel
pump. This is what I am getting into order to run fuel lines, you will need to "index" your fuel pump.
Let me detail this for you. Lowering the engine and setting it back will require a cut into the cross-member. You will then "box" in that cutout in order to add strength
to the member. See the picture below. This is a stock cross member. The engine mounts are very simple to build and the steel brackets that bolt the engine in place
are off shelf items at most any speed shop.
However the problem is going to be your fuel pump. In some cases you won't be able to use a stock pump, but this is racing and you don't really wany to run those
3/8 inch lines anyway, so prepare to buy a decent fuel pump with 1/2 inch NPT inlet and outlet for AN type fittings. Use a 10 for the inlet and an 8 for the outlet.
Depending on your fuel system and cubic inches, you will purchase a 10 or a 15 PSI pump with a minimum of 110 GPH. See the Carter Pump shown below.
Now for the real down to ground substance of this article. You may need to index the fuel pump. Do not purchase a pump that cannot be indexed (clocked). If you
are not sure, ask your vendor to explain. Indexing means you can adjust the pump inlet and outlet fitting locations so the lines can be routed through your cross
member after modifications. In the image below, the lines are passed along the block from the underside of the chassis and connect to the inlet located at the rear
of the pump head. The outlet is directly piped up to the regulator which is located directly in front of the carburetor. The shorter these lines the better.
So what to do about indexing?? Well, you purchaszed a fuel pump with several screws (8 or 10) of them along the lower half of the pump body. You will have to remove
these screws. The pump probably has the inlet and the outlet faced front to rear inline. If you must index (clock) one port or the other you must insure it does not create
a different issue for the opposing port. The number of screws dictates the degree of your rotation. A ten screw pump is 36 degrees per screw. The eight screw units afford
a 45 degree index per screw. Why do I say per screw?? Because you are going to rotate the entire upper section, including the diaphragm by as many screw holes as needed
in order to index the pump ports properly. The diaphragm may have the same number of holes or twice as many. If it has twice as many holes you can index by half as much.
That means a ten screw 36 degree index can be reduced to 18 degrees by using the next available hole. Otherwise you are limited to 36, or 45 degrees of rotation. Do not
force the diaphgram into the next hole
. Rotate (clock) the pump body only!
Above you see is the Carter fuel pump and a crude illustration of the actuating arm that adresses the pump motion. This is a simple rocker arm lever that is driven from
the fuel pump push-rod that rides on the camshaft lobe directly behind the timing gear. This is the first lobe on the cam. It drives the arm up and down while the arm
pumps the diaphragm which draws fuel in then pumps it out. A very simple mechanical pump and not much has changed for over 75 years. However, indexing is not
something we do with stock single stage pumps. In racing we run triple stage or higher in order to deliver as much GPH (gallons per hour) through the system as possible.
Now the details...if you must rotate the pump in order to index it properly you must not force the diaphragm main shaft off pitch. This is done by over clocking the body
rotation by just one hole. Incorrect alignment can happen and the results are catastrophic. Note the arm above, it is designed like an anchor hook that lifts the stem of
the diaphragm shaft up and down. The eye of the stem must line up facing the hook. Like threading a needle, the hook must pass through the eye with no bind on side.
If there is a twist in the stem it will bind with the hook until it wears the hook away and the hook breaks off or the eye breaks open. The twist also provokes the diaphragm
itself and causes premature failure. The rubber diaphragm will rub along the surface of the lower pump chamber and form small tears along the edge. It will decline and the first
notice will be the fuel pressure is bouncing, as much as a pound, prior to failure.
The best way to index is to remove the actuator pin, the actuator arm and the actuator spring (blue). Carefully remove these and set aside for reinstallation later. Now
carefully remove the 8 or 10 screws from the body. Leave two opposing screws in the body and remove them last. This technique will separate the two pump bodies.
The diaphragm spring will gently force the pump apart
. This method insures you will not tear the diaphgram along the seam. Now rotate the lower portion of the body so the
inlet and outlet are indexed properly to fit your configuration. These inlet and outlets are lined up front to back so the front outlet must be facing the radiator. You will most
likely rotate the diaphragm 20 or 40 degrees. My Carter pump rotates 45 degrees and I use a 45 degree 10AN fitting to angle the line back under the motor mount. This works
perfectly and it protects fuel lines from track debris. However, I had to rotate the diaphragm one screw position and re-align the shaft eye so the actuator was open facing the
anchor hook. I then reinstalled the pin and the spring. I tightened two screws and tested the pump by hand. Satisfied that the pump actuator was correctly aligned I finished
the install. FYI: Don't waste your time trying to attach a diaphragm spring shaft to the anchor hook without removing the actuator. You will frustrate yourself into a panic.
In the images below you see what a misaligned actuator can do. Note the damage to the shaft, the diaphragm and the anchor hook. This all happened inside 200 laps of racing.

Don't make this mistake. If you must index your pump make certain the actuator and the anchor hook are aligned properly. It may cost you a win, a DNF or much worse.
Keep  in mind that there are different spring lengths and compression for actuator arm and the diaphragm spring. These depend on PSI at the regulator. Too soft, the fuel PSI
will bounce, too hard the pump flow will be decreased and the pressure on the shaft eye will exceed specifications. The diaphragm stem (shaft) can be rotated a few degrees.
Be wise...on an 800 CFM Holley, set the PSI to 9 pounds max.  Note: I replaced this pump with a new one. I selected a Quick Fuel 130 GPH replacement.

Do not purchase this brand of pump
. Yes, it looks pretty but it is simply a polished turd. Buy the Carter or Holley version of indexable SBC fuel pump.